OK: Found an XML parser.
OK: Support for GZIP encoding.
OK: Support for character munging.

Notice: MagpieRSS [debug] Returning STALE object for http://appropriatemedia.net/feed in /home/morrisc/public_html/rep/rss/rss_fetch.inc on line 243

Example Output

Channel: Bofads

RSS URL:

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      string(47) "On Facebook, the fiasco of moderation in Arabic"
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      string(580) "Par Martin Untersinger Posted on October 25, 2021 at 1:00 p.m. – Updated on October 25, 2021 at 4:27 p.m. Reserved for our subscribers InvestigationFacebook Files | The company’s internal documents show its inertia in the face of the dysfunctions caused by its lack of mastery of the third language of the social network. Why ... Read more"
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Par Martin Untersinger

Posted on October 25, 2021 at 1:00 p.m. – Updated on October 25, 2021 at 4:27 p.m.

Why has there been more content identified as violent and terrorists on Facebook, Instagram and Messenger during Ramadan in 2019 and 2020? Facebook employees who have spotted this statistical phenomenon in six predominantly Muslim countries, including three Arabic speakers, are intrigued. On their internal forum, they evoke a hypothesis, without being able to fully confirm it: the messages from the Koran posted during this period contain words, such as « martyr » Where « combat », that have been automatically associated by Facebook’s algorithms with violent or terrorist comments.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Facebook Files: outside the United States, the weaknesses of moderation in dozens of languages

Asked, Facebook says “Not to have proof of undue moderation linked to Ramadan”. This anecdote of a poorly calibrated system making erroneous decisions is however recounted in one of the many internal Facebook documents, recovered by Frances Haugen, a former employee, and transmitted by an American parliamentary source to several media, including The world. It vividly illustrates the shortcomings of the social network in terms of moderation of Arabic-language content and its inertia to put an end to it.

The question of dialects

The Arabic-speaking countries of North Africa and the Middle East are a major market for Facebook, with 220 million active users at the end of 2020 – a good half of the population of the area – making Arabic the third language on the social network. In the summer of 2020, it is even the area of ​​the world where users are the most active.

“With the size of our Arabic language user base and the potential severity of offline damage in virtually all Arab countries – all except Western Sahara are on the risk list and face serious problems. , such as terrorism and sex trafficking – put more resources into improving the systems [de modération] in Arabic is of the utmost importance ”, can we read in a document written at the end of 2020 by an employee, in a note on the limits of the use of artificial intelligence for moderation.

Extract from one of the anonymized documents sent to the American Congress in which the author points out the importance of improving moderation in the Arabic language.

The state of play drawn up by these documents is final and can be summed up in one sentence: Facebook is not able to have potentially illegal comments in Arabic examined by competent moderators – when they exist. The causes of this problem are multiple. Human, first: as surprising as it may seem for a multinational that has been present in Arab countries for years, Facebook did not have, at the end of 2020, enough moderators capable of understanding all the main Arabic dialects. nor the cultural and national contexts, necessarily different in this vast area stretching from Morocco to Iraq.

You have 72.4% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to say thanks to the author of this short article for this outstanding material

On Facebook, the fiasco of moderation in Arabic

" } ["summary"]=> string(580) "Par Martin Untersinger Posted on October 25, 2021 at 1:00 p.m. – Updated on October 25, 2021 at 4:27 p.m. Reserved for our subscribers InvestigationFacebook Files | The company’s internal documents show its inertia in the face of the dysfunctions caused by its lack of mastery of the third language of the social network. Why ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(5429) "
Par Martin Untersinger

Posted on October 25, 2021 at 1:00 p.m. – Updated on October 25, 2021 at 4:27 p.m.

Why has there been more content identified as violent and terrorists on Facebook, Instagram and Messenger during Ramadan in 2019 and 2020? Facebook employees who have spotted this statistical phenomenon in six predominantly Muslim countries, including three Arabic speakers, are intrigued. On their internal forum, they evoke a hypothesis, without being able to fully confirm it: the messages from the Koran posted during this period contain words, such as « martyr » Where « combat », that have been automatically associated by Facebook’s algorithms with violent or terrorist comments.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Facebook Files: outside the United States, the weaknesses of moderation in dozens of languages

Asked, Facebook says “Not to have proof of undue moderation linked to Ramadan”. This anecdote of a poorly calibrated system making erroneous decisions is however recounted in one of the many internal Facebook documents, recovered by Frances Haugen, a former employee, and transmitted by an American parliamentary source to several media, including The world. It vividly illustrates the shortcomings of the social network in terms of moderation of Arabic-language content and its inertia to put an end to it.

The question of dialects

The Arabic-speaking countries of North Africa and the Middle East are a major market for Facebook, with 220 million active users at the end of 2020 – a good half of the population of the area – making Arabic the third language on the social network. In the summer of 2020, it is even the area of ​​the world where users are the most active.

“With the size of our Arabic language user base and the potential severity of offline damage in virtually all Arab countries – all except Western Sahara are on the risk list and face serious problems. , such as terrorism and sex trafficking – put more resources into improving the systems [de modération] in Arabic is of the utmost importance ”, can we read in a document written at the end of 2020 by an employee, in a note on the limits of the use of artificial intelligence for moderation.

Extract from one of the anonymized documents sent to the American Congress in which the author points out the importance of improving moderation in the Arabic language.

The state of play drawn up by these documents is final and can be summed up in one sentence: Facebook is not able to have potentially illegal comments in Arabic examined by competent moderators – when they exist. The causes of this problem are multiple. Human, first: as surprising as it may seem for a multinational that has been present in Arab countries for years, Facebook did not have, at the end of 2020, enough moderators capable of understanding all the main Arabic dialects. nor the cultural and national contexts, necessarily different in this vast area stretching from Morocco to Iraq.

You have 72.4% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to say thanks to the author of this short article for this outstanding material

On Facebook, the fiasco of moderation in Arabic

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635631783) } [1]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(43) "CNES and the heyday of “astrophilately”" ["link"]=> string(57) "https://bofads.com/cnes-and-the-heyday-of-astrophilately/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Paula Hooper" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 21:33:31 +0000" ["category"]=> string(32) "SciencesastrophilatelyCNESheyday" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=877" ["description"]=> string(553) "By Pierre Jullien Posted on October 11, 2021 at 12:00 p.m. Reserved for our subscribers FactualSpace exploration and postage stamps go hand in hand. Proof in pictures: La Poste is offering a sticker for sale on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the National Center for Space Studies. On the occasion of the 60e ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(6666) "
By Pierre Jullien

Posted on October 11, 2021 at 12:00 p.m.

On the occasion of the 60e anniversary of the National Center for Space Studies (CNES), La Poste will put on sale on Monday, October 11 a stamp designed by David Ducros, at 1.50 euros, corresponding to the “international priority letter” rate of less than 20 grams.

“CNES 1961-2021”, designed by David Ducros.

The artist represented Ariane 5 which takes off from an Earth evoking the CNES pictogram. In the foreground is the astronaut Thomas Pesquet, as part of the Alpha mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). At the top of the stamp is drawn the planet Mars, on which the Perseverance rover has been rolling since February.

The stamps are printed in sheets of fifteen copies, with margins illustrated, among others, by the Diamant A launchers of 1965 and Ariane 1 of 1979, the flight of the astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien on the Russian station Saliout 7 in 1982, that of astronaut Claudie Haigneré on the International Space Station in 2001 or that of Thomas Pesquet (Alpha mission) in 2021… Two stamps have already mentioned the CNES: in 1989 with the “Franco-Soviet flight CNES-Glavcosmos Intercosmos”, and for the 30e and 50e birthdays of the space center in 1982 and 2011.

Stamp published in 1989, created by Didier Bécet.

Space exploration and philately go hand in hand. Thus, France has issued many stamps on this theme, since 1962, with two labels on the space telecommunications center of Pleumeur-Bodou (Côtes-d’Armor) and on the first satellite television link (the American Telstar ).

Over the years, the commemorations followed one after another: the sending of Asterix into space by a Diamant rocket, the first French satellite (1965); pioneer of astronautics Robert Esnault-Pelterie (1881-1957) in 1967; “Guyana. Earth from space ”for the launch of the Diamant B rocket from the center of Kourou (1970); Symphonie satellite (1976); Aeronautics and Space Show (1979 and 1981), with an Ariane rocket; Galileo (2008); “Soyuz in Guyana” (2010), Asterix satellite (2015), etc. Without forgetting the creations of cartoonists signed René Pellos, Paul Gillon or Jean-Claude Mézières (1988) and the illustration, in 2005, of the novel by Jules Verne From the Earth to the moon.

Stamps published in 1965, drawn and engraved by Claude Durrens.

The most commemorated astronautical event in the world by stamps remains the first steps on the Moon of Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, on July 21, 1969 at 3:56 a.m. (French time). The Guinness Book of Stamps (Editions n ° 1, 1983) recalls that, during this flight, “The astronauts took an envelope to the moon [en fait deux] with a non-serrated stamp proof [« First Man on the Moon », qui paraît officiellement en septembre 1969] that they canceled on the moon »…

You have 35.43% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to thank the author of this article for this amazing web content

CNES and the heyday of “astrophilately”

" } ["summary"]=> string(553) "By Pierre Jullien Posted on October 11, 2021 at 12:00 p.m. Reserved for our subscribers FactualSpace exploration and postage stamps go hand in hand. Proof in pictures: La Poste is offering a sticker for sale on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the National Center for Space Studies. On the occasion of the 60e ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(6666) "
By Pierre Jullien

Posted on October 11, 2021 at 12:00 p.m.

On the occasion of the 60e anniversary of the National Center for Space Studies (CNES), La Poste will put on sale on Monday, October 11 a stamp designed by David Ducros, at 1.50 euros, corresponding to the “international priority letter” rate of less than 20 grams.

“CNES 1961-2021”, designed by David Ducros.

The artist represented Ariane 5 which takes off from an Earth evoking the CNES pictogram. In the foreground is the astronaut Thomas Pesquet, as part of the Alpha mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). At the top of the stamp is drawn the planet Mars, on which the Perseverance rover has been rolling since February.

The stamps are printed in sheets of fifteen copies, with margins illustrated, among others, by the Diamant A launchers of 1965 and Ariane 1 of 1979, the flight of the astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien on the Russian station Saliout 7 in 1982, that of astronaut Claudie Haigneré on the International Space Station in 2001 or that of Thomas Pesquet (Alpha mission) in 2021… Two stamps have already mentioned the CNES: in 1989 with the “Franco-Soviet flight CNES-Glavcosmos Intercosmos”, and for the 30e and 50e birthdays of the space center in 1982 and 2011.

Stamp published in 1989, created by Didier Bécet.

Space exploration and philately go hand in hand. Thus, France has issued many stamps on this theme, since 1962, with two labels on the space telecommunications center of Pleumeur-Bodou (Côtes-d’Armor) and on the first satellite television link (the American Telstar ).

Over the years, the commemorations followed one after another: the sending of Asterix into space by a Diamant rocket, the first French satellite (1965); pioneer of astronautics Robert Esnault-Pelterie (1881-1957) in 1967; “Guyana. Earth from space ”for the launch of the Diamant B rocket from the center of Kourou (1970); Symphonie satellite (1976); Aeronautics and Space Show (1979 and 1981), with an Ariane rocket; Galileo (2008); “Soyuz in Guyana” (2010), Asterix satellite (2015), etc. Without forgetting the creations of cartoonists signed René Pellos, Paul Gillon or Jean-Claude Mézières (1988) and the illustration, in 2005, of the novel by Jules Verne From the Earth to the moon.

Stamps published in 1965, drawn and engraved by Claude Durrens.

The most commemorated astronautical event in the world by stamps remains the first steps on the Moon of Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, on July 21, 1969 at 3:56 a.m. (French time). The Guinness Book of Stamps (Editions n ° 1, 1983) recalls that, during this flight, “The astronauts took an envelope to the moon [en fait deux] with a non-serrated stamp proof [« First Man on the Moon », qui paraît officiellement en septembre 1969] that they canceled on the moon »…

You have 35.43% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We want to thank the author of this article for this amazing web content

CNES and the heyday of “astrophilately”

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635629611) } [2]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(92) "Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies" ["link"]=> string(112) "https://bofads.com/novel-advanced-light-design-and-fabrication-process-could-revolutionize-sensing-technologies/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Tony Grantly" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 21:31:54 +0000" ["category"]=> string(87) "Health And ScienceadvancedDesignfabricationlightprocessrevolutionizesensingtechnologies" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=875" ["description"]=> string(382) "Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies – NovLink Home Mash D Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies We would like to thank the writer of this article for this outstanding material Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(6769) "




Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies – NovLink















We would like to thank the writer of this article for this outstanding material

Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies

" } ["summary"]=> string(382) "Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies – NovLink Home Mash D Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies We would like to thank the writer of this article for this outstanding material Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies" ["atom_content"]=> string(6769) "




Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies – NovLink















We would like to thank the writer of this article for this outstanding material

Novel advanced light design and fabrication process could revolutionize sensing technologies

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635629514) } [3]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(66) "Wec, 6 Hours Bahrain: Toyota wins the constructors’ championship" ["link"]=> string(81) "https://bofads.com/wec-6-hours-bahrain-toyota-wins-the-constructors-championship/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(8) "Tim Hall" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 21:31:05 +0000" ["category"]=> string(54) "SportBahrainchampionshipconstructorsHoursToyotaWecwins" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=872" ["description"]=> string(643) "In the penultimate round of the 2021 World Endurance Championship, the two Toyota GR010 Hybrid Hypercars scored a double that earned the title for the manufacturers. In the Lmgte Pro class, between Porsche and Ferrari it is a close challenge A brace from the Toyota GR010 Hybrid decrees the mathematical victory of the constructors’ world ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(5923) "

In the penultimate round of the 2021 World Endurance Championship, the two Toyota GR010 Hybrid Hypercars scored a double that earned the title for the manufacturers. In the Lmgte Pro class, between Porsche and Ferrari it is a close challenge

A brace from the Toyota GR010 Hybrid decrees the mathematical victory of the constructors’ world title in the premier Hypercar class. The 6 Hours of Bahrain, the penultimate round of the WEC Endurance World Championship, earned the Japanese manufacturer the first place in the world championship standings at the end of a dominated race, while the drivers’ title remains to be attributed: appointment on Saturday 6 November, again on the Sakhir track, when the 8 Hours of Bahrain will be played. Among the cars derived from the series, on the other hand, the two Porsche 911s stand out in the main Lmgte Pro class; third was the Ferrari 488 Gte Evo of Alessandro Pier Guidi and James Calado.

WEC 2021: TOYOTA MANUFACTURER CHAMPION

At the end of 185 laps, the 6 Hours of Bahrain saw the triumph of the Toyota GR010 Hybrid number 7 driven by Conway, Kobayashi and Lopez, with a best lap time of 1’49 ” 051, which led by 51 ” 401 another Hypercar signed by Gazoo Racing and driven by Buemi-Nakajima-Hartley. The double win at the Sakhir circuit earned the Japanese manufacturer the world title among constructors, the fourth overall (and third in a row) for the team that brings the Toyota prototypes to the track. Third at the finish was the Alpine Elf of Negrao-Lapierre-Vaxiviere, one lap behind the leaders. While in the Lmp2 cadet class the success of the Oreca 07 Gibson prototype of Frijns-Habsburg-Milesi (the second after Le Mans) gives Team Wrt the leadership, both among the drivers and among the teams. On Saturday 6 November the Sakhir circuit will once again be in the spotlight of the WEC with the 8-Hour Endurance race, valid as the last round of the season: the points at stake will therefore be decisive for both the drivers’ title in the Hypercars and for those related to the cadet class. “I am delighted with the victory that ensured the team’s title – commented Mike Conway, winner in Bahrain -. A positive day for all of us, even thinking about the drivers’ title, but for this reason the challenge is still to be played, so it will take hard work to get the better of the teammates who drive the Toyota GR010 Hybrid number 8 “.

WEC 2021: FERRARI-PORSCHE CHALLENGE

With an absolute thirteenth position at the end of the 6 Hours of Bahrain, the Porsche 911 number 92 of Estre and Jani climbs to the top step of the podium in the Lmgte Pro class, 690 thousandths behind the other German car, the 911 entrusted to Bruni and Lietz . A double win that brings the German cars and the reds of Maranello closer together in the world championship challenge, after the third place obtained by Pier Guidi-Calado’s Ferrari 488 Gte Evo number 51 (+ 35 ” 134), preceding the other Ferrari, the 52 di Serra and Molina (+ 2 ” 125), both brought to the track by the AF Corse team. A race in which the Maranello reds suffered from the reduction in power linked to the ‘Balance of Performance’ attributed for the Middle Eastern trip, failing to fight for the class victory with their German rivals. “As raised on the eve, the ‘BoP’ proved to be particularly penalizing for our cars, as confirmed by the pace held in the race and the result of this 6 Hours – the words of Antonello Coletta, head of Ferrari GT Sport Activities -. We regret not being able to defend the leadership acquired in previous occasions, the result of always beautiful and exciting races. We hope that correct ‘BoP’ criteria will be re-established in the last race to try to fight on equal terms for the conquest of the world titles ”. In the Lmgte Am class (first the Aston Martin Vantage number 33 of Keating-Pereira-Fraga) for the first time no Ferrari crew gets on the podium; in the drivers’ standings they continue to defend the Perrodo-Nielsen-Rovera leadership in the AF Corse Ferrari 488 Gte Evo.

WEC 2021: THE RANKINGS, HYPERCAR AND GT PRO

The rankings of the 2021 WEC endurance world championship after the 6 Hours of Bahrain:
Toyota Gazoo Racing 167 punti
Alpine Elf (105)
Glickenhaus Racing (37).

Drivers ranking among the Hypercars:
1. Lopez-Kobayashi-Conway (Toyota) 145.
2. Hartley-Nakajima-Buemi (Toyota) 130.

Lmgte Pro class drivers ranking:
1. Pier Guidi-Calado (Ferrari) 139
2. Estre-Jani (Porsche) 138.
3. Bruni-Lietz (Porsche) 93
4. Serra- Molina (Ferrari) 69.

Lmgte Pro Manufacturers Ranking:
1. Porsche 231
2. Ferrari 230.

We want to give thanks to the writer of this article for this remarkable content

Wec, 6 Hours Bahrain: Toyota wins the constructors’ championship

" } ["summary"]=> string(643) "In the penultimate round of the 2021 World Endurance Championship, the two Toyota GR010 Hybrid Hypercars scored a double that earned the title for the manufacturers. In the Lmgte Pro class, between Porsche and Ferrari it is a close challenge A brace from the Toyota GR010 Hybrid decrees the mathematical victory of the constructors’ world ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(5923) "

In the penultimate round of the 2021 World Endurance Championship, the two Toyota GR010 Hybrid Hypercars scored a double that earned the title for the manufacturers. In the Lmgte Pro class, between Porsche and Ferrari it is a close challenge

A brace from the Toyota GR010 Hybrid decrees the mathematical victory of the constructors’ world title in the premier Hypercar class. The 6 Hours of Bahrain, the penultimate round of the WEC Endurance World Championship, earned the Japanese manufacturer the first place in the world championship standings at the end of a dominated race, while the drivers’ title remains to be attributed: appointment on Saturday 6 November, again on the Sakhir track, when the 8 Hours of Bahrain will be played. Among the cars derived from the series, on the other hand, the two Porsche 911s stand out in the main Lmgte Pro class; third was the Ferrari 488 Gte Evo of Alessandro Pier Guidi and James Calado.

WEC 2021: TOYOTA MANUFACTURER CHAMPION

At the end of 185 laps, the 6 Hours of Bahrain saw the triumph of the Toyota GR010 Hybrid number 7 driven by Conway, Kobayashi and Lopez, with a best lap time of 1’49 ” 051, which led by 51 ” 401 another Hypercar signed by Gazoo Racing and driven by Buemi-Nakajima-Hartley. The double win at the Sakhir circuit earned the Japanese manufacturer the world title among constructors, the fourth overall (and third in a row) for the team that brings the Toyota prototypes to the track. Third at the finish was the Alpine Elf of Negrao-Lapierre-Vaxiviere, one lap behind the leaders. While in the Lmp2 cadet class the success of the Oreca 07 Gibson prototype of Frijns-Habsburg-Milesi (the second after Le Mans) gives Team Wrt the leadership, both among the drivers and among the teams. On Saturday 6 November the Sakhir circuit will once again be in the spotlight of the WEC with the 8-Hour Endurance race, valid as the last round of the season: the points at stake will therefore be decisive for both the drivers’ title in the Hypercars and for those related to the cadet class. “I am delighted with the victory that ensured the team’s title – commented Mike Conway, winner in Bahrain -. A positive day for all of us, even thinking about the drivers’ title, but for this reason the challenge is still to be played, so it will take hard work to get the better of the teammates who drive the Toyota GR010 Hybrid number 8 “.

WEC 2021: FERRARI-PORSCHE CHALLENGE

With an absolute thirteenth position at the end of the 6 Hours of Bahrain, the Porsche 911 number 92 of Estre and Jani climbs to the top step of the podium in the Lmgte Pro class, 690 thousandths behind the other German car, the 911 entrusted to Bruni and Lietz . A double win that brings the German cars and the reds of Maranello closer together in the world championship challenge, after the third place obtained by Pier Guidi-Calado’s Ferrari 488 Gte Evo number 51 (+ 35 ” 134), preceding the other Ferrari, the 52 di Serra and Molina (+ 2 ” 125), both brought to the track by the AF Corse team. A race in which the Maranello reds suffered from the reduction in power linked to the ‘Balance of Performance’ attributed for the Middle Eastern trip, failing to fight for the class victory with their German rivals. “As raised on the eve, the ‘BoP’ proved to be particularly penalizing for our cars, as confirmed by the pace held in the race and the result of this 6 Hours – the words of Antonello Coletta, head of Ferrari GT Sport Activities -. We regret not being able to defend the leadership acquired in previous occasions, the result of always beautiful and exciting races. We hope that correct ‘BoP’ criteria will be re-established in the last race to try to fight on equal terms for the conquest of the world titles ”. In the Lmgte Am class (first the Aston Martin Vantage number 33 of Keating-Pereira-Fraga) for the first time no Ferrari crew gets on the podium; in the drivers’ standings they continue to defend the Perrodo-Nielsen-Rovera leadership in the AF Corse Ferrari 488 Gte Evo.

WEC 2021: THE RANKINGS, HYPERCAR AND GT PRO

The rankings of the 2021 WEC endurance world championship after the 6 Hours of Bahrain:
Toyota Gazoo Racing 167 punti
Alpine Elf (105)
Glickenhaus Racing (37).

Drivers ranking among the Hypercars:
1. Lopez-Kobayashi-Conway (Toyota) 145.
2. Hartley-Nakajima-Buemi (Toyota) 130.

Lmgte Pro class drivers ranking:
1. Pier Guidi-Calado (Ferrari) 139
2. Estre-Jani (Porsche) 138.
3. Bruni-Lietz (Porsche) 93
4. Serra- Molina (Ferrari) 69.

Lmgte Pro Manufacturers Ranking:
1. Porsche 231
2. Ferrari 230.

We want to give thanks to the writer of this article for this remarkable content

Wec, 6 Hours Bahrain: Toyota wins the constructors’ championship

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635629465) } [4]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(41) "5 steps to make your own gameplay channel" ["link"]=> string(61) "https://bofads.com/5-steps-to-make-your-own-gameplay-channel/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Paula Hooper" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 21:30:12 +0000" ["category"]=> string(25) "MusicChannelgameplaysteps" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=869" ["description"]=> string(535) "short Music Non Stop no Facebook Play a game and share the video experience with thousands of people: that’s what gameplay is all about. The term in English can be translated as “gameplay”, but it also means a style of video that has been very successful, in which a user films their screen while playing ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(9310) "

Play a game and share the video experience with thousands of people: that’s what gameplay is all about.

The term in English can be translated as “gameplay”, but it also means a style of video that has been very successful, in which a user films their screen while playing a game.

If, in addition to being a spectator, you want to become a gameplay producer, know that with some basic tips it is possible to create a channel to share these moments.

Next, learn 5 steps to make your own gameplay channel!

Choose a game to play

The first step in starting a gameplay channel is to define which game you are going to film and share with others.

In this sense, there are two possibilities: you can choose a style or a game that you already know and feel comfortable with, or you can opt for a hot game to take advantage of the title’s popularity.

In either case, it’s crucial to keep in mind that it’s interesting to choose a game that you have some affinity for. This will make your recordings more fun to capture, and more dynamic for those watching.

  1. A program to record the screen

To make your own gameplay channel, you need to have a tool capable of recording what’s happening on your screen.

Although there are several names on the market, one feature that has caught the attention of users is Wondershare UniConverter.

UniConverter is a very complete video tool. One of its features is the screen recording high-quality. Just give the “start” for the program to start recording.

Uniconverter

Image: Freepik (UniConverter)

In addition, you can also use other features of the UniConverter, such as the YouTube video download space or the area for converting file formats.

editing the video

After recording the screen with gameplay, the work is not over yet! Of course, you can share a game recording the way it was made – but it’s a lot more interesting when the content producer edits the video.

So, after capturing the gameplay, use the base file to make some edits. You can make cuts, highlight some moments or phrases, insert a soundtrack, whatever.

Several programs allow you to edit video and UniConverter itself, mentioned above, has a specific area for basic editing. With a good dose of creativity, your gameplays will get even better.

Share on YouTube

With gameplay material recorded and edited, it’s time to share everything you’ve done with others!

with wax 2 billion monthly users, YouTube is one of the best platforms for sharing gameplay. This is because, in addition to having areas dedicated to games, this is where many people search for certain titles.

Creating a YouTube account is very simple, but it’s important to pay attention to details, such as the cover, description, thumbnails of the videos, anyway. The more dedication you put to channel elements, the greater your chances of attracting the audience.

Think of other platforms

When it comes to making your own gameplay channel, most people think about creating YouTube-focused content.

However, it’s interesting to keep in mind that it’s not just YouTube as a platform – there are other sites that can be just as profitable or more profitable.

Image: Freepik

A good example is Twitch, a gameplay platform that thousands of players use (and manage to earn money). Including one of the most watched Twitch channels worldwide it’s from a brazilian.

Facebook Gaming can also be an interesting way to make your gameplay broadcasts.

One tip is to create accounts on different platforms to test your differentials and see the one that gains you the most popularity. Thus, it is possible to focus efforts where your channel yields the most.

Gameplay as a source of fun and income

For a lot of people, playing a game is fun and relaxing. But in addition to being a source of fun, many people are finding that making gameplay can be a source of income.

That’s because both YouTube, Twitch and Facebook Gaming give cash bonuses to users who reach higher viewer numbers.

So, now that you know the steps to making your own gameplay channel, think that the game can be more than a fun experience. Let the games begin!

Jota Wagner

Jota Wagner has been writing, disco, and partying in Brazil and Europe since the early 1990s. He is currently editor in chief of Music Non Stop and cultural producer at Agência 55. He has contributed, using his ears, feet or hands, to the dawn of Brazilian electronic music.

We wish to give thanks to the writer of this write-up for this incredible web content

5 steps to make your own gameplay channel

" } ["summary"]=> string(535) "short Music Non Stop no Facebook Play a game and share the video experience with thousands of people: that’s what gameplay is all about. The term in English can be translated as “gameplay”, but it also means a style of video that has been very successful, in which a user films their screen while playing ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(9310) "

Play a game and share the video experience with thousands of people: that’s what gameplay is all about.

The term in English can be translated as “gameplay”, but it also means a style of video that has been very successful, in which a user films their screen while playing a game.

If, in addition to being a spectator, you want to become a gameplay producer, know that with some basic tips it is possible to create a channel to share these moments.

Next, learn 5 steps to make your own gameplay channel!

Choose a game to play

The first step in starting a gameplay channel is to define which game you are going to film and share with others.

In this sense, there are two possibilities: you can choose a style or a game that you already know and feel comfortable with, or you can opt for a hot game to take advantage of the title’s popularity.

In either case, it’s crucial to keep in mind that it’s interesting to choose a game that you have some affinity for. This will make your recordings more fun to capture, and more dynamic for those watching.

  1. A program to record the screen

To make your own gameplay channel, you need to have a tool capable of recording what’s happening on your screen.

Although there are several names on the market, one feature that has caught the attention of users is Wondershare UniConverter.

UniConverter is a very complete video tool. One of its features is the screen recording high-quality. Just give the “start” for the program to start recording.

Uniconverter

Image: Freepik (UniConverter)

In addition, you can also use other features of the UniConverter, such as the YouTube video download space or the area for converting file formats.

editing the video

After recording the screen with gameplay, the work is not over yet! Of course, you can share a game recording the way it was made – but it’s a lot more interesting when the content producer edits the video.

So, after capturing the gameplay, use the base file to make some edits. You can make cuts, highlight some moments or phrases, insert a soundtrack, whatever.

Several programs allow you to edit video and UniConverter itself, mentioned above, has a specific area for basic editing. With a good dose of creativity, your gameplays will get even better.

Share on YouTube

With gameplay material recorded and edited, it’s time to share everything you’ve done with others!

with wax 2 billion monthly users, YouTube is one of the best platforms for sharing gameplay. This is because, in addition to having areas dedicated to games, this is where many people search for certain titles.

Creating a YouTube account is very simple, but it’s important to pay attention to details, such as the cover, description, thumbnails of the videos, anyway. The more dedication you put to channel elements, the greater your chances of attracting the audience.

Think of other platforms

When it comes to making your own gameplay channel, most people think about creating YouTube-focused content.

However, it’s interesting to keep in mind that it’s not just YouTube as a platform – there are other sites that can be just as profitable or more profitable.

Image: Freepik

A good example is Twitch, a gameplay platform that thousands of players use (and manage to earn money). Including one of the most watched Twitch channels worldwide it’s from a brazilian.

Facebook Gaming can also be an interesting way to make your gameplay broadcasts.

One tip is to create accounts on different platforms to test your differentials and see the one that gains you the most popularity. Thus, it is possible to focus efforts where your channel yields the most.

Gameplay as a source of fun and income

For a lot of people, playing a game is fun and relaxing. But in addition to being a source of fun, many people are finding that making gameplay can be a source of income.

That’s because both YouTube, Twitch and Facebook Gaming give cash bonuses to users who reach higher viewer numbers.

So, now that you know the steps to making your own gameplay channel, think that the game can be more than a fun experience. Let the games begin!

Jota Wagner

Jota Wagner has been writing, disco, and partying in Brazil and Europe since the early 1990s. He is currently editor in chief of Music Non Stop and cultural producer at Agência 55. He has contributed, using his ears, feet or hands, to the dawn of Brazilian electronic music.

We wish to give thanks to the writer of this write-up for this incredible web content

5 steps to make your own gameplay channel

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635629412) } [5]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(76) "Everything you need to know about the iPhone 13, Apple Watch 7 and new iPads" ["link"]=> string(95) "https://bofads.com/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-iphone-13-apple-watch-7-and-new-ipads/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(11) "David Lonit" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 21:28:55 +0000" ["category"]=> string(28) "GadgetsAppleiPadsiPhoneWatch" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=866" ["description"]=> string(659) "Tech giant Apple presented four new iPhone models on Tuesday evening. The iPhone 13 series has a better screen, more powerful battery, faster processor and better cameras than the previous generation. At the same virtual event, the company also unveiled new versions of the Apple Watch and iPad (mini). The iPhone 13 looks largely the ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(10345) "

Tech giant Apple presented four new iPhone models on Tuesday evening. The iPhone 13 series has a better screen, more powerful battery, faster processor and better cameras than the previous generation. At the same virtual event, the company also unveiled new versions of the Apple Watch and iPad (mini).

The iPhone 13 looks largely the same as its predecessor. One difference is that the so-called notch, the bulge in the screen where sensors are for, among other things, facial recognition, which has become narrower. Just like last year, the 5G device will come in four versions and three different sizes. It concerns the ‘standard’ iPhone 13 with a screen diagonal of 6.1 inches, an iPhone 13 mini of 5.4 inches, a 6.1-inch Pro model and finally a larger iPhone 13 Pro Max with a 6.7-inch display.

The iPhone 13 (mini) got an improved Super Retina XDR OLED display with 28 percent more brightness. Still, the battery lasts up to 2.5 and 1.5 hours longer than with the previous generation of iPhones, respectively, thanks to the more energy-efficient A15 Bionic chip.

The two more expensive Pro models have three cameras instead of two and a ProMotion screen that can refresh more often, up to 120Hz, making moving images smoother. The biggest eye-catcher on these devices is without a doubt the Film mode, where the focus is automatically shifted when a new subject comes into focus. Example: When someone turns their head away in view, the iPhone will automatically focus on another person or object. That looked very professional during the demonstrations. It is also possible to adjust the depth of field afterwards: seen before with photos, but for videos this is still quite unique. Another difference with the ‘normal’ iPhone 13 (mini) is the GPU or graphics processor: it has an extra fifth core on the Pro models, which can be an asset in games, among other things.

All new smartphones run natively from iOS 15, which will also be available for quite a few other iPhones from September 20.

Target prices: the iPhone 13 is available from 909 euros, the mini version starts at 809 euros. The iPhone 13 Pro starts at 1,159 euros, its bigger brother at 1,259 euros. The price always depends on the storage capacity (from now on at least 128 GB, but not expandable), with Apple now for the first time also launching a model with 1 terabyte of memory. For the most complete version of the iPhone 13 Pro Max you pay a hefty 1,839 euros.

Bigger screen for the Watch

The Apple Watch Series 7 turned out to be somewhat more innovative than the iPhone 13, which mainly has more power. To start with, the smart watch gets a new display with almost twenty percent more screen surface and remarkably thin bezels of only 1.7 mm. As a result, much more information fits on the display – think of extra lines of text in a message, so that you have to scroll less.

The Watch still offers an autonomy of eighteen hours, which is quite little compared to the main competitors, but the gadget now charges 33 percent faster wirelessly. Apple also claims it’s the most rugged Watch yet, thanks to more shatter-resistant crystal, IP6X certification for dust resistance, and the fact that the watch meets the WR50 water-resistance standard.

Operating system is WatchOS 8. That not only includes extra watch faces and an improved Mindfulness app, but also new features for cyclists. The timepiece uses advanced algorithms to analyze GPS, heart rate, accelerometer and gyroscope data to detect when users start a ride, prompting them to start an Outdoor Cycle workout if it hasn’t started. The gadget even tracks your active calories when you ride an e-bike.

The Apple Watch Series 7 comes in five aluminum cases and a range of bands in new colors and styles. The clock will not appear on the market until ‘later this year’ and will cost at least USD 399 (euro prices have not yet been announced).

Apple Watch Series 7., Apple
Apple Watch Series 7. © Apple

iPad-updates

Furthermore, the entry-level iPad of 10.2-inch (from 389 euros) was upgraded with a faster A13 Bionic processor and a better 12-megapixel camera on the front. the device can also be operated with an Apple Pencil (of the first generation) and has at least 64 GB of storage on board – double that of the previous model.

The iPad mini, the smallest model in the tablet family, has been redesigned and now looks a bit more like the iPad Air and the iPad Pro. The model also got a larger 8.3-inch screen, faster A15 Bionic processor and better cameras (12MP on both sides). It is worth noting that the iPad mini is also available with 5G functionality. Prices start at 599 euros.

The new iPad mini., Apple
The new iPad mini. © Apple

The iPhone 13 looks largely the same as its predecessor. A difference is that the so-called notch, the bulge in the screen where sensors are for, among other things, facial recognition, has become narrower. Just like last year, the 5G device will come in four versions and three different sizes. It concerns the ‘standard’ iPhone 13 with a screen diagonal of 6.1 inches, an iPhone 13 mini of 5.4 inches, a 6.1-inch Pro model and finally a larger iPhone 13 Pro Max with a 6.7-inch display. The iPhone 13 (mini) got an improved Super Retina XDR OLED display with 28 percent more brightness. Still, the battery lasts up to 2.5 and 1.5 hours longer than the previous generation iPhones, respectively, thanks to the more energy-efficient A15 Bionic chip. The two more expensive Pro models have three cameras instead of two and a ProMotion screen that refresh more often, up to 120Hz, making moving images smoother. The biggest eye-catcher on these devices is without a doubt the Film mode, where the focus is automatically shifted when a new subject comes into focus. Example: When someone turns their head away in view, the iPhone will automatically focus on another person or object. That looked very professional during the demonstrations. It is also possible to adjust the depth of field afterwards: seen before with photos, but for videos this is still quite unique. Another difference with the ‘regular’ iPhone 13 (mini) is the GPU or graphics processor: it has an extra fifth core on the Pro models, which can be an asset in games, among other things. 15, which will also be available for quite a few other iPhones from September 20. Target prices: the iPhone 13 is available from 909 euros, the mini version starts at 809 euros. The iPhone 13 Pro starts at 1,159 euros, its bigger brother at 1,259 euros. The price always depends on the storage capacity (from now on at least 128 GB, but not expandable), with Apple now for the first time also launching a model with 1 terabyte of memory. For the most complete version of the iPhone 13 Pro Max you pay a hefty 1,839 euros. The Apple Watch Series 7 turned out to be somewhat more innovative than the iPhone 13, which mainly has more power. To start with, the smart watch gets a new display with almost twenty percent more screen surface and remarkably thin bezels of only 1.7 mm. As a result, a lot more information fits on the display – think extra lines of text in a message, so that you have to scroll less. The Watch still offers an autonomy of eighteen hours, which is quite little compared to the main competitors, but it The gadget will now charge 33 percent faster wirelessly. Apple also claims it’s the most rugged Watch yet, thanks to more shatter-resistant crystal, IP6X dust-resistance certification, and the fact that the watch meets the WR50 water-resistance standard. Operating system on duty is WatchOS 8. That doesn’t just include additional watch faces and an improved Mindfulness app, as well as new features for cyclists. The timepiece uses advanced algorithms to analyze GPS, heart rate, accelerometer and gyroscope data to detect when users start a ride, prompting them to start an Outdoor Cycle workout if it hasn’t started. The gadget even tracks your active calories while riding an e-bike. The Apple Watch Series 7 comes in five aluminum case designs and a range of bands in new colors and styles. The clock will not appear on the market until ‘later this year’ and will cost at least $399 (euro prices have not yet been announced). Furthermore, the entry-level 10.2-inch iPad (starting at 389 euros) has been upgraded with a faster A13 Bionic processor and a better 12-megapixel front camera. the device can also be operated with an Apple Pencil (of the first generation) and has at least 64 GB of storage memory on board – double that of the previous model. The iPad mini, the smallest model in the tablet family, has been redesigned and now looks somewhat more on the iPad Air and the iPad Pro. The model also got a larger 8.3-inch screen, faster A15 Bionic processor and better cameras (12MP on both sides). It is worth noting that the iPad mini is also available with 5G functionality. Prices start at 599 euros.

We would like to thank the writer of this post for this amazing content

Everything you need to know about the iPhone 13, Apple Watch 7 and new iPads

" } ["summary"]=> string(659) "Tech giant Apple presented four new iPhone models on Tuesday evening. The iPhone 13 series has a better screen, more powerful battery, faster processor and better cameras than the previous generation. At the same virtual event, the company also unveiled new versions of the Apple Watch and iPad (mini). The iPhone 13 looks largely the ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(10345) "

Tech giant Apple presented four new iPhone models on Tuesday evening. The iPhone 13 series has a better screen, more powerful battery, faster processor and better cameras than the previous generation. At the same virtual event, the company also unveiled new versions of the Apple Watch and iPad (mini).

The iPhone 13 looks largely the same as its predecessor. One difference is that the so-called notch, the bulge in the screen where sensors are for, among other things, facial recognition, which has become narrower. Just like last year, the 5G device will come in four versions and three different sizes. It concerns the ‘standard’ iPhone 13 with a screen diagonal of 6.1 inches, an iPhone 13 mini of 5.4 inches, a 6.1-inch Pro model and finally a larger iPhone 13 Pro Max with a 6.7-inch display.

The iPhone 13 (mini) got an improved Super Retina XDR OLED display with 28 percent more brightness. Still, the battery lasts up to 2.5 and 1.5 hours longer than with the previous generation of iPhones, respectively, thanks to the more energy-efficient A15 Bionic chip.

The two more expensive Pro models have three cameras instead of two and a ProMotion screen that can refresh more often, up to 120Hz, making moving images smoother. The biggest eye-catcher on these devices is without a doubt the Film mode, where the focus is automatically shifted when a new subject comes into focus. Example: When someone turns their head away in view, the iPhone will automatically focus on another person or object. That looked very professional during the demonstrations. It is also possible to adjust the depth of field afterwards: seen before with photos, but for videos this is still quite unique. Another difference with the ‘normal’ iPhone 13 (mini) is the GPU or graphics processor: it has an extra fifth core on the Pro models, which can be an asset in games, among other things.

All new smartphones run natively from iOS 15, which will also be available for quite a few other iPhones from September 20.

Target prices: the iPhone 13 is available from 909 euros, the mini version starts at 809 euros. The iPhone 13 Pro starts at 1,159 euros, its bigger brother at 1,259 euros. The price always depends on the storage capacity (from now on at least 128 GB, but not expandable), with Apple now for the first time also launching a model with 1 terabyte of memory. For the most complete version of the iPhone 13 Pro Max you pay a hefty 1,839 euros.

Bigger screen for the Watch

The Apple Watch Series 7 turned out to be somewhat more innovative than the iPhone 13, which mainly has more power. To start with, the smart watch gets a new display with almost twenty percent more screen surface and remarkably thin bezels of only 1.7 mm. As a result, much more information fits on the display – think of extra lines of text in a message, so that you have to scroll less.

The Watch still offers an autonomy of eighteen hours, which is quite little compared to the main competitors, but the gadget now charges 33 percent faster wirelessly. Apple also claims it’s the most rugged Watch yet, thanks to more shatter-resistant crystal, IP6X certification for dust resistance, and the fact that the watch meets the WR50 water-resistance standard.

Operating system is WatchOS 8. That not only includes extra watch faces and an improved Mindfulness app, but also new features for cyclists. The timepiece uses advanced algorithms to analyze GPS, heart rate, accelerometer and gyroscope data to detect when users start a ride, prompting them to start an Outdoor Cycle workout if it hasn’t started. The gadget even tracks your active calories when you ride an e-bike.

The Apple Watch Series 7 comes in five aluminum cases and a range of bands in new colors and styles. The clock will not appear on the market until ‘later this year’ and will cost at least USD 399 (euro prices have not yet been announced).

Apple Watch Series 7., Apple
Apple Watch Series 7. © Apple

iPad-updates

Furthermore, the entry-level iPad of 10.2-inch (from 389 euros) was upgraded with a faster A13 Bionic processor and a better 12-megapixel camera on the front. the device can also be operated with an Apple Pencil (of the first generation) and has at least 64 GB of storage on board – double that of the previous model.

The iPad mini, the smallest model in the tablet family, has been redesigned and now looks a bit more like the iPad Air and the iPad Pro. The model also got a larger 8.3-inch screen, faster A15 Bionic processor and better cameras (12MP on both sides). It is worth noting that the iPad mini is also available with 5G functionality. Prices start at 599 euros.

The new iPad mini., Apple
The new iPad mini. © Apple

The iPhone 13 looks largely the same as its predecessor. A difference is that the so-called notch, the bulge in the screen where sensors are for, among other things, facial recognition, has become narrower. Just like last year, the 5G device will come in four versions and three different sizes. It concerns the ‘standard’ iPhone 13 with a screen diagonal of 6.1 inches, an iPhone 13 mini of 5.4 inches, a 6.1-inch Pro model and finally a larger iPhone 13 Pro Max with a 6.7-inch display. The iPhone 13 (mini) got an improved Super Retina XDR OLED display with 28 percent more brightness. Still, the battery lasts up to 2.5 and 1.5 hours longer than the previous generation iPhones, respectively, thanks to the more energy-efficient A15 Bionic chip. The two more expensive Pro models have three cameras instead of two and a ProMotion screen that refresh more often, up to 120Hz, making moving images smoother. The biggest eye-catcher on these devices is without a doubt the Film mode, where the focus is automatically shifted when a new subject comes into focus. Example: When someone turns their head away in view, the iPhone will automatically focus on another person or object. That looked very professional during the demonstrations. It is also possible to adjust the depth of field afterwards: seen before with photos, but for videos this is still quite unique. Another difference with the ‘regular’ iPhone 13 (mini) is the GPU or graphics processor: it has an extra fifth core on the Pro models, which can be an asset in games, among other things. 15, which will also be available for quite a few other iPhones from September 20. Target prices: the iPhone 13 is available from 909 euros, the mini version starts at 809 euros. The iPhone 13 Pro starts at 1,159 euros, its bigger brother at 1,259 euros. The price always depends on the storage capacity (from now on at least 128 GB, but not expandable), with Apple now for the first time also launching a model with 1 terabyte of memory. For the most complete version of the iPhone 13 Pro Max you pay a hefty 1,839 euros. The Apple Watch Series 7 turned out to be somewhat more innovative than the iPhone 13, which mainly has more power. To start with, the smart watch gets a new display with almost twenty percent more screen surface and remarkably thin bezels of only 1.7 mm. As a result, a lot more information fits on the display – think extra lines of text in a message, so that you have to scroll less. The Watch still offers an autonomy of eighteen hours, which is quite little compared to the main competitors, but it The gadget will now charge 33 percent faster wirelessly. Apple also claims it’s the most rugged Watch yet, thanks to more shatter-resistant crystal, IP6X dust-resistance certification, and the fact that the watch meets the WR50 water-resistance standard. Operating system on duty is WatchOS 8. That doesn’t just include additional watch faces and an improved Mindfulness app, as well as new features for cyclists. The timepiece uses advanced algorithms to analyze GPS, heart rate, accelerometer and gyroscope data to detect when users start a ride, prompting them to start an Outdoor Cycle workout if it hasn’t started. The gadget even tracks your active calories while riding an e-bike. The Apple Watch Series 7 comes in five aluminum case designs and a range of bands in new colors and styles. The clock will not appear on the market until ‘later this year’ and will cost at least $399 (euro prices have not yet been announced). Furthermore, the entry-level 10.2-inch iPad (starting at 389 euros) has been upgraded with a faster A13 Bionic processor and a better 12-megapixel front camera. the device can also be operated with an Apple Pencil (of the first generation) and has at least 64 GB of storage memory on board – double that of the previous model. The iPad mini, the smallest model in the tablet family, has been redesigned and now looks somewhat more on the iPad Air and the iPad Pro. The model also got a larger 8.3-inch screen, faster A15 Bionic processor and better cameras (12MP on both sides). It is worth noting that the iPad mini is also available with 5G functionality. Prices start at 599 euros.

We would like to thank the writer of this post for this amazing content

Everything you need to know about the iPhone 13, Apple Watch 7 and new iPads

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635629335) } [6]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(54) "Afghanistan: the politicization of aid must be avoided" ["link"]=> string(73) "https://bofads.com/afghanistan-the-politicization-of-aid-must-be-avoided/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Paula Hooper" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 21:28:01 +0000" ["category"]=> string(45) "World NewsAfghanistanaidavoidedpoliticization" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=863" ["description"]=> string(599) "Editorial of the “World”. The war in Afghanistan has ended, but not the suffering of the people. The alarming signals keep piling up. A report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, released on October 25, predicts that half of the population, around 20 million people according to IMF and UN estimates, ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4972) "

Editorial of the “World”. The war in Afghanistan has ended, but not the suffering of the people. The alarming signals keep piling up. A report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, released on October 25, predicts that half of the population, around 20 million people according to IMF and UN estimates, are at risk of famine.

Decades of fighting and their millions of displaced people, poverty and repeated climatic disasters have produced what is already one of the world’s worst crises. The implosion of the economy, caused by the end of the financing of the State by the United States and the blocking by Washington and Europe of the funds of the Afghan Central Bank, strengthens it. The winter season, which accentuates the isolation of rural areas, can only make it even worse. Testimonies are piling up of families forced to sell their property, and even, in the most desperate cases, their children in an attempt to survive.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Tensions within the European Union over attitude towards the Taliban

The dilemma facing the traditional providers of international aid, predominantly Western, is as much moral as it is political. He opposes those who, like China or Russia, demand the return of funds from the Afghan Central Bank to those who refuse. It also divides Europeans, and its consideration at a special session of the G20 in Italy on October 12 did not go beyond declarations of intent.

The population taken hostage

The terms of this dilemma are simple. Should we help and mechanically reinforce a Taliban power which has so far failed to obtain international recognition? Or refuse to do so, in order to retain levers likely to force the new masters of Afghanistan to make concessions on the status of women, the inclusion of ethnic minorities, or even the fight against small terrorist groups still present in the country. country ?

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Afghanistan: the G20 tries to stop the humanitarian crisis without comforting the Taliban

The analysis underlying this second option may appear relentless. Bolstered by their status as the winners of the longest war ever waged by the United States, the Taliban have so far refrained from any political or diplomatic openness in the eyes of the international community. No doubt they will know how to present the arrival of significant international aid such as the validation of their strategy.

This postulate, however, raises two serious reservations. The construction of a balance of power based on aid appears singularly theoretical with regard to ex-insurgents who triumphed over the most powerful army in the world, supported by those of its allies, at the end of a twenty-year war. . This choice then places the Afghan population at the mercy of a confrontation of which they are hostage, especially women, who are very exposed to food insecurity.

In September, the United States Treasury Department granted licenses allowing non-governmental organizations to assist the Afghan people without incurring prosecution related to the sanctions in force against the new power in place in Kabul. This relaxation, and the announcement on October 28 of emergency aid of 144 million dollars (124 million euros), from the big loser of the Afghan war, is probably the maximum he can agree to, but this realism opens up a path, however narrow it may be. Urgency demands pragmatism, and politicization of humanitarian aid must be avoided.

The world

We wish to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable content

Afghanistan: the politicization of aid must be avoided

" } ["summary"]=> string(599) "Editorial of the “World”. The war in Afghanistan has ended, but not the suffering of the people. The alarming signals keep piling up. A report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, released on October 25, predicts that half of the population, around 20 million people according to IMF and UN estimates, ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4972) "

Editorial of the “World”. The war in Afghanistan has ended, but not the suffering of the people. The alarming signals keep piling up. A report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, released on October 25, predicts that half of the population, around 20 million people according to IMF and UN estimates, are at risk of famine.

Decades of fighting and their millions of displaced people, poverty and repeated climatic disasters have produced what is already one of the world’s worst crises. The implosion of the economy, caused by the end of the financing of the State by the United States and the blocking by Washington and Europe of the funds of the Afghan Central Bank, strengthens it. The winter season, which accentuates the isolation of rural areas, can only make it even worse. Testimonies are piling up of families forced to sell their property, and even, in the most desperate cases, their children in an attempt to survive.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Tensions within the European Union over attitude towards the Taliban

The dilemma facing the traditional providers of international aid, predominantly Western, is as much moral as it is political. He opposes those who, like China or Russia, demand the return of funds from the Afghan Central Bank to those who refuse. It also divides Europeans, and its consideration at a special session of the G20 in Italy on October 12 did not go beyond declarations of intent.

The population taken hostage

The terms of this dilemma are simple. Should we help and mechanically reinforce a Taliban power which has so far failed to obtain international recognition? Or refuse to do so, in order to retain levers likely to force the new masters of Afghanistan to make concessions on the status of women, the inclusion of ethnic minorities, or even the fight against small terrorist groups still present in the country. country ?

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers Afghanistan: the G20 tries to stop the humanitarian crisis without comforting the Taliban

The analysis underlying this second option may appear relentless. Bolstered by their status as the winners of the longest war ever waged by the United States, the Taliban have so far refrained from any political or diplomatic openness in the eyes of the international community. No doubt they will know how to present the arrival of significant international aid such as the validation of their strategy.

This postulate, however, raises two serious reservations. The construction of a balance of power based on aid appears singularly theoretical with regard to ex-insurgents who triumphed over the most powerful army in the world, supported by those of its allies, at the end of a twenty-year war. . This choice then places the Afghan population at the mercy of a confrontation of which they are hostage, especially women, who are very exposed to food insecurity.

In September, the United States Treasury Department granted licenses allowing non-governmental organizations to assist the Afghan people without incurring prosecution related to the sanctions in force against the new power in place in Kabul. This relaxation, and the announcement on October 28 of emergency aid of 144 million dollars (124 million euros), from the big loser of the Afghan war, is probably the maximum he can agree to, but this realism opens up a path, however narrow it may be. Urgency demands pragmatism, and politicization of humanitarian aid must be avoided.

The world

We wish to say thanks to the author of this write-up for this remarkable content

Afghanistan: the politicization of aid must be avoided

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635629281) } [7]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(83) "At the G20 summit, the risk of a North-South antagonism which foreshadows the COP26" ["link"]=> string(102) "https://bofads.com/at-the-g20-summit-the-risk-of-a-north-south-antagonism-which-foreshadows-the-cop26/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Paula Hooper" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 21:26:51 +0000" ["category"]=> string(55) "PlanetantagonismCOP26foreshadowsG20NorthSouthrisksummit" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=860" ["description"]=> string(631) "The Heads of State and Government of the Group of Twenty (G20), in Rome, October 30, 2021. KIRSTY WIGGLESWORTH / AP It was a risk before the summit of the Group of Twenty (G20), which met on Saturday 30 and Sunday 31 October in Rome. It could remain so during the 26e Conference of the ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4600) "

It was a risk before the summit of the Group of Twenty (G20), which met on Saturday 30 and Sunday 31 October in Rome. It could remain so during the 26e Conference of the Parties (COP26) organized in Glasgow in the wake. On the occasion of these two major multilateral meetings, the climate negotiations threatened to degenerate into a clash between the rich countries and the emerging countries. Among the three countries expected at the turn are Xi Jinping’s China, Narendra Modi’s India and Jair Bolsonaro’s Brazil, three authoritarian leaders, keen to develop their economy, especially after the pandemic, and quick to put their sovereignty to the fore. when it comes to defending their interests.

“The possibility that they go on a crusade, making themselves the spokespersons of the poorest countries, in particular in Africa, exists. Everything must be done to avoid this type of cleavage ”, observes a Western diplomat familiar with the discussions. This is also one of the reasons why Emmanuel Macron hastened to meet the Indian Prime Minister on Saturday, in order to “Tie it down” climate discussions, as explained by the Elysee Palace before the G20.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers A G20 under tension at a time of rivalries exacerbated by the pandemic

The stake is all the more at the heart of the summit of the twenty main economies of the planet as it will end when the 26e United Nations climate conference. Nearly 30,000 people from 196 countries will gather in Glasgow from October 31 to November 12 for crucial negotiations to accelerate the fight against climate change. As soon as the G20 is over, the leaders of the great powers will indeed fly from Rome to the Scottish city, where 120 heads of state and government are expected on Monday and Tuesday. Xi will be absent, but will participate via video conference.

Limit global warming to 1.5 degrees

“This concomitance is very important. This is where balances could crystallize ”, judges the French Ministry of Ecological Transition. “A positive outcome would make it possible to arrive in Glasgow with momentum and the hope of succeeding in containing global warming”, abounds Alden Meyer, expert at the E3G think tank and connoisseur of climate negotiations.

For it to truly serve as a launching pad for the COP, the G20 is expected on several issues, the negotiation resembling a vast puzzle whose pieces are still scattered. First, recognize the need to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees compared to the pre-industrial era. This is the most ambitious goal of the Paris climate agreement, sealed in 2015, which also plans to contain global warming. “Well below” of 2 degrees. The British presidency of COP26 has made this objective its priority: « To keep 1.5 degree alive » (“Keep the 1.5 degrees alive”).

You have 55.9% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We wish to thank the author of this write-up for this awesome content

At the G20 summit, the risk of a North-South antagonism which foreshadows the COP26

" } ["summary"]=> string(631) "The Heads of State and Government of the Group of Twenty (G20), in Rome, October 30, 2021. KIRSTY WIGGLESWORTH / AP It was a risk before the summit of the Group of Twenty (G20), which met on Saturday 30 and Sunday 31 October in Rome. It could remain so during the 26e Conference of the ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4600) "

It was a risk before the summit of the Group of Twenty (G20), which met on Saturday 30 and Sunday 31 October in Rome. It could remain so during the 26e Conference of the Parties (COP26) organized in Glasgow in the wake. On the occasion of these two major multilateral meetings, the climate negotiations threatened to degenerate into a clash between the rich countries and the emerging countries. Among the three countries expected at the turn are Xi Jinping’s China, Narendra Modi’s India and Jair Bolsonaro’s Brazil, three authoritarian leaders, keen to develop their economy, especially after the pandemic, and quick to put their sovereignty to the fore. when it comes to defending their interests.

“The possibility that they go on a crusade, making themselves the spokespersons of the poorest countries, in particular in Africa, exists. Everything must be done to avoid this type of cleavage ”, observes a Western diplomat familiar with the discussions. This is also one of the reasons why Emmanuel Macron hastened to meet the Indian Prime Minister on Saturday, in order to “Tie it down” climate discussions, as explained by the Elysee Palace before the G20.

Read also Article reserved for our subscribers A G20 under tension at a time of rivalries exacerbated by the pandemic

The stake is all the more at the heart of the summit of the twenty main economies of the planet as it will end when the 26e United Nations climate conference. Nearly 30,000 people from 196 countries will gather in Glasgow from October 31 to November 12 for crucial negotiations to accelerate the fight against climate change. As soon as the G20 is over, the leaders of the great powers will indeed fly from Rome to the Scottish city, where 120 heads of state and government are expected on Monday and Tuesday. Xi will be absent, but will participate via video conference.

Limit global warming to 1.5 degrees

“This concomitance is very important. This is where balances could crystallize ”, judges the French Ministry of Ecological Transition. “A positive outcome would make it possible to arrive in Glasgow with momentum and the hope of succeeding in containing global warming”, abounds Alden Meyer, expert at the E3G think tank and connoisseur of climate negotiations.

For it to truly serve as a launching pad for the COP, the G20 is expected on several issues, the negotiation resembling a vast puzzle whose pieces are still scattered. First, recognize the need to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees compared to the pre-industrial era. This is the most ambitious goal of the Paris climate agreement, sealed in 2015, which also plans to contain global warming. “Well below” of 2 degrees. The British presidency of COP26 has made this objective its priority: « To keep 1.5 degree alive » (“Keep the 1.5 degrees alive”).

You have 55.9% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We wish to thank the author of this write-up for this awesome content

At the G20 summit, the risk of a North-South antagonism which foreshadows the COP26

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635629211) } [8]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(49) "Ethical debates on the study of ancient human DNA" ["link"]=> string(69) "https://bofads.com/ethical-debates-on-the-study-of-ancient-human-dna/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Paula Hooper" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 12:06:51 +0000" ["category"]=> string(42) "SciencesancientdebatesDNAEthicalhumanstudy" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=857" ["description"]=> string(621) "Paleontology. Only twelve years ago, no complete genome of ancient humans was available. Today, there are more than 6,000 of them. This revolution in paleogenomics has completely changed the study of our distant past, of interbreeding with our deceased cousins, of migrations and populations, but also of the physiological specificities of certain current populations. – ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(4447) "

Paleontology. Only twelve years ago, no complete genome of ancient humans was available. Today, there are more than 6,000 of them. This revolution in paleogenomics has completely changed the study of our distant past, of interbreeding with our deceased cousins, of migrations and populations, but also of the physiological specificities of certain current populations. – lactose intolerance, adaptations to altitude, ability to apnea, susceptibility to certain diseases and even perhaps resistance to coronaviruses. In a context of acute competition to access samples, it also rekindled discussions about the most ethical way to study human remains.

This is evidenced by the proposal of an international group of archaeologists, anthropologists, geneticists and conservators of fossil collections to implement a guide to good conduct that is “Applicable everywhere in the world” to guarantee a “Ethics of DNA research on human remains”. Presented in the review Nature from October 21, these rules are the result of discussions conducted in November 2020, during a virtual workshop bringing together these researchers from 31 countries. The proposals have been translated into 23 languages ​​to underline the international reach desired by the signatories, who undertake to implement them.

What is it about ? Five rules, which the layman might have the feeling that they are obvious. Here they are : “1. Researchers must ensure that all regulations have been followed in the places where they work and where human remains originate. 2. Researchers should prepare a detailed plan before starting any study. 3. Researchers must minimize damage to human remains. 4. Researchers should ensure that data are made available after publication to allow for critical review of scientific results. 5. Researchers should engage with stakeholders early in the study and ensure that they respect and take into account the views of other stakeholders. [descendants ou peuples indigènes par exemple]. »

Past breaches

Why recall what seems to go without saying? Because the players in the field are aware of past failures. A case poisoned relations between scientists and Native American tribes for more than twenty years, after the discovery in 1996 in Washington State of the “Kennewick Man”, an 8,500-year-old skeleton. The local tribes believed that the “Elder” belonged to their ancestors and demanded its restitution. They finally won their case and reburied the fossil on February 18, 2017, in an undisclosed location, after DNA analysis proved members of the Colville tribe to be his current closest descendants – leading the US Congress. to vote on a text to make this restitution possible.

You have 66.28% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We would love to thank the author of this short article for this outstanding material

Ethical debates on the study of ancient human DNA

" } ["summary"]=> string(621) "Paleontology. Only twelve years ago, no complete genome of ancient humans was available. Today, there are more than 6,000 of them. This revolution in paleogenomics has completely changed the study of our distant past, of interbreeding with our deceased cousins, of migrations and populations, but also of the physiological specificities of certain current populations. – ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(4447) "

Paleontology. Only twelve years ago, no complete genome of ancient humans was available. Today, there are more than 6,000 of them. This revolution in paleogenomics has completely changed the study of our distant past, of interbreeding with our deceased cousins, of migrations and populations, but also of the physiological specificities of certain current populations. – lactose intolerance, adaptations to altitude, ability to apnea, susceptibility to certain diseases and even perhaps resistance to coronaviruses. In a context of acute competition to access samples, it also rekindled discussions about the most ethical way to study human remains.

This is evidenced by the proposal of an international group of archaeologists, anthropologists, geneticists and conservators of fossil collections to implement a guide to good conduct that is “Applicable everywhere in the world” to guarantee a “Ethics of DNA research on human remains”. Presented in the review Nature from October 21, these rules are the result of discussions conducted in November 2020, during a virtual workshop bringing together these researchers from 31 countries. The proposals have been translated into 23 languages ​​to underline the international reach desired by the signatories, who undertake to implement them.

What is it about ? Five rules, which the layman might have the feeling that they are obvious. Here they are : “1. Researchers must ensure that all regulations have been followed in the places where they work and where human remains originate. 2. Researchers should prepare a detailed plan before starting any study. 3. Researchers must minimize damage to human remains. 4. Researchers should ensure that data are made available after publication to allow for critical review of scientific results. 5. Researchers should engage with stakeholders early in the study and ensure that they respect and take into account the views of other stakeholders. [descendants ou peuples indigènes par exemple]. »

Past breaches

Why recall what seems to go without saying? Because the players in the field are aware of past failures. A case poisoned relations between scientists and Native American tribes for more than twenty years, after the discovery in 1996 in Washington State of the “Kennewick Man”, an 8,500-year-old skeleton. The local tribes believed that the “Elder” belonged to their ancestors and demanded its restitution. They finally won their case and reburied the fossil on February 18, 2017, in an undisclosed location, after DNA analysis proved members of the Colville tribe to be his current closest descendants – leading the US Congress. to vote on a text to make this restitution possible.

You have 66.28% of this article to read. The rest is for subscribers only.

We would love to thank the author of this short article for this outstanding material

Ethical debates on the study of ancient human DNA

" ["date_timestamp"]=> int(1635595611) } [9]=> array(11) { ["title"]=> string(75) "Neutron star collisions are ‘goldmine’ of heavy components, study finds" ["link"]=> string(88) "https://bofads.com/neutron-star-collisions-are-goldmine-of-heavy-components-study-finds/" ["dc"]=> array(1) { ["creator"]=> string(12) "Tony Grantly" } ["pubdate"]=> string(31) "Sat, 30 Oct 2021 12:00:35 +0000" ["category"]=> string(67) "Health And SciencecollisionscomponentsgoldmineheavyNeutronstarstudy" ["guid"]=> string(25) "https://bofads.com/?p=855" ["description"]=> string(706) "Journal Reference: Hsin-Yu Chen, Salvatore Vitale, Francois Foucart. The Relative Contribution to Heavy Metals Production from Binary Neutron Star Mergers and Neutron Star–Black Hole Mergers. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021; 920 (1): L3 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac26c6 A new study by researchers at MIT and the University of New Hampshire finds that of two long-suspected sources of ... Read more" ["content"]=> array(1) { ["encoded"]=> string(6816) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Hsin-Yu Chen, Salvatore Vitale, Francois Foucart. The Relative Contribution to Heavy Metals Production from Binary Neutron Star Mergers and Neutron Star–Black Hole Mergers. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021; 920 (1): L3 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac26c6

A new study by researchers at MIT and the University of New Hampshire finds that of two long-suspected sources of heavy metals, one is more of a goldmine than the other.

The study, published today in Astrophysical Journal Letters, reports that in the last 2.5 billion years, more heavy metals were produced in binary neutron star mergers, or collisions between two neutron stars, than in mergers between a neutron star and a black hole.

The study is the first to compare the two merger types in terms of their heavy metal output, and suggests that binary neutron stars are a likely cosmic source for the gold, platinum, and other heavy metals we see today. The findings could also help scientists determine the rate at which heavy metals are produced across the universe.

“What we find exciting about our result is that to some level of confidence we can say binary neutron stars are probably more of a goldmine than neutron star-black hole mergers,” says lead author Hsin-Yu Chen, a postdoc in MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research.

Chen’s co-authors are Salvatore Vitale, assistant professor of physics at MIT, and Francois Foucart of UNH.

An efficient flash

As stars undergo nuclear fusion, they require energy to fuse protons to form heavier elements. Stars are efficient in churning out lighter elements, from hydrogen to iron. Fusing more than the 26 protons in iron, however, becomes energetically inefficient.

“If you want to go past iron and build heavier elements like gold and platinum, you need some other way to throw protons together,” Vitale says.

Scientists have suspected supernovae might be an answer. When a massive star collapses in a supernova, the iron at its center could conceivably combine with lighter elements in the extreme fallout to generate heavier elements.

In 2017, however, a promising candidate was confirmed, in the form a binary neutron star merger, detected for the first time by LIGO and Virgo, the gravitational-wave observatories in the United States and in Italy, respectively. The detectors picked up gravitational waves, or ripples through space-time, that originated 130 million light years from Earth, from a collision between two neutron stars — collapsed cores of massive stars, that are packed with neutrons and are among the densest objects in the universe.

The cosmic merger emitted a flash of light, which contained signatures of heavy metals.

“The magnitude of gold produced in the merger was equivalent to several times the mass of the Earth,” Chen says. “That entirely changed the picture. The math showed that binary neutron stars were a more efficient way to create heavy elements, compared to supernovae.”

A binary goldmine

Chen and her colleagues wondered: How might neutron star mergers compare to collisions between a neutron star and a black hole? This is another merger type that has been detected by LIGO and Virgo and could potentially be a heavy metal factory. Under certain conditions, scientists suspect, a black hole could disrupt a neutron star such that it would spark and spew heavy metals before the black hole completely swallowed the star.

The team set out to determine the amount of gold and other heavy metals each type of merger could typically produce. For their analysis, they focused on LIGO and Virgo’s detections to date of two binary neutron star mergers and two neutron star — black hole mergers.

The researchers first estimated the mass of each object in each merger, as well as the rotational speed of each black hole, reasoning that if a black hole is too massive or slow, it would swallow a neutron star before it had a chance to produce heavy elements. They also determined each neutron star’s resistance to being disrupted. The more resistant a star, the less likely it is to churn out heavy elements. They also estimated how often one merger occurs compared to the other, based on observations by LIGO, Virgo, and other observatories.

Finally, the team used numerical simulations developed by Foucart, to calculate the average amount of gold and other heavy metals each merger would produce, given varying combinations of the objects’ mass, rotation, degree of disruption, and rate of occurrence.

On average, the researchers found that binary neutron star mergers could generate two to 100 times more heavy metals than mergers between neutron stars and black holes. The four mergers on which they based their analysis are estimated to have occurred within the last 2.5 billion years. They conclude then, that during this period, at least, more heavy elements were produced by binary neutron star mergers than by collisions between neutron stars and black holes.

The scales could tip in favor of neutron star-black hole mergers if the black holes had high spins, and low masses. However, scientists have not yet observed these kinds of black holes in the two mergers detected to date.

Chen and her colleagues hope that, as LIGO and Virgo resume observations next year, more detections will improve the team’s estimates for the rate at which each merger produces heavy elements. These rates, in turn, may help scientists determine the age of distant galaxies, based on the abundance of their various elements.

“You can use heavy metals the same way we use carbon to date dinosaur remains,” Vitale says. “Because all these phenomena have different intrinsic rates and yields of heavy elements, that will affect how you attach a time stamp to a galaxy. So, this kind of study can improve those analyses.”

This research was funded, in part, by NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the LIGO Laboratory.

We would love to thank the author of this article for this outstanding web content

Neutron star collisions are ‘goldmine’ of heavy components, study finds

" } ["summary"]=> string(706) "Journal Reference: Hsin-Yu Chen, Salvatore Vitale, Francois Foucart. The Relative Contribution to Heavy Metals Production from Binary Neutron Star Mergers and Neutron Star–Black Hole Mergers. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021; 920 (1): L3 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac26c6 A new study by researchers at MIT and the University of New Hampshire finds that of two long-suspected sources of ... Read more" ["atom_content"]=> string(6816) "

Journal Reference:

  1. Hsin-Yu Chen, Salvatore Vitale, Francois Foucart. The Relative Contribution to Heavy Metals Production from Binary Neutron Star Mergers and Neutron Star–Black Hole Mergers. The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2021; 920 (1): L3 DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ac26c6

A new study by researchers at MIT and the University of New Hampshire finds that of two long-suspected sources of heavy metals, one is more of a goldmine than the other.

The study, published today in Astrophysical Journal Letters, reports that in the last 2.5 billion years, more heavy metals were produced in binary neutron star mergers, or collisions between two neutron stars, than in mergers between a neutron star and a black hole.

The study is the first to compare the two merger types in terms of their heavy metal output, and suggests that binary neutron stars are a likely cosmic source for the gold, platinum, and other heavy metals we see today. The findings could also help scientists determine the rate at which heavy metals are produced across the universe.

“What we find exciting about our result is that to some level of confidence we can say binary neutron stars are probably more of a goldmine than neutron star-black hole mergers,” says lead author Hsin-Yu Chen, a postdoc in MIT’s Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research.

Chen’s co-authors are Salvatore Vitale, assistant professor of physics at MIT, and Francois Foucart of UNH.

An efficient flash

As stars undergo nuclear fusion, they require energy to fuse protons to form heavier elements. Stars are efficient in churning out lighter elements, from hydrogen to iron. Fusing more than the 26 protons in iron, however, becomes energetically inefficient.

“If you want to go past iron and build heavier elements like gold and platinum, you need some other way to throw protons together,” Vitale says.

Scientists have suspected supernovae might be an answer. When a massive star collapses in a supernova, the iron at its center could conceivably combine with lighter elements in the extreme fallout to generate heavier elements.

In 2017, however, a promising candidate was confirmed, in the form a binary neutron star merger, detected for the first time by LIGO and Virgo, the gravitational-wave observatories in the United States and in Italy, respectively. The detectors picked up gravitational waves, or ripples through space-time, that originated 130 million light years from Earth, from a collision between two neutron stars — collapsed cores of massive stars, that are packed with neutrons and are among the densest objects in the universe.

The cosmic merger emitted a flash of light, which contained signatures of heavy metals.

“The magnitude of gold produced in the merger was equivalent to several times the mass of the Earth,” Chen says. “That entirely changed the picture. The math showed that binary neutron stars were a more efficient way to create heavy elements, compared to supernovae.”

A binary goldmine

Chen and her colleagues wondered: How might neutron star mergers compare to collisions between a neutron star and a black hole? This is another merger type that has been detected by LIGO and Virgo and could potentially be a heavy metal factory. Under certain conditions, scientists suspect, a black hole could disrupt a neutron star such that it would spark and spew heavy metals before the black hole completely swallowed the star.

The team set out to determine the amount of gold and other heavy metals each type of merger could typically produce. For their analysis, they focused on LIGO and Virgo’s detections to date of two binary neutron star mergers and two neutron star — black hole mergers.

The researchers first estimated the mass of each object in each merger, as well as the rotational speed of each black hole, reasoning that if a black hole is too massive or slow, it would swallow a neutron star before it had a chance to produce heavy elements. They also determined each neutron star’s resistance to being disrupted. The more resistant a star, the less likely it is to churn out heavy elements. They also estimated how often one merger occurs compared to the other, based on observations by LIGO, Virgo, and other observatories.

Finally, the team used numerical simulations developed by Foucart, to calculate the average amount of gold and other heavy metals each merger would produce, given varying combinations of the objects’ mass, rotation, degree of disruption, and rate of occurrence.

On average, the researchers found that binary neutron star mergers could generate two to 100 times more heavy metals than mergers between neutron stars and black holes. The four mergers on which they based their analysis are estimated to have occurred within the last 2.5 billion years. They conclude then, that during this period, at least, more heavy elements were produced by binary neutron star mergers than by collisions between neutron stars and black holes.

The scales could tip in favor of neutron star-black hole mergers if the black holes had high spins, and low masses. However, scientists have not yet observed these kinds of black holes in the two mergers detected to date.

Chen and her colleagues hope that, as LIGO and Virgo resume observations next year, more detections will improve the team’s estimates for the rate at which each merger produces heavy elements. These rates, in turn, may help scientists determine the age of distant galaxies, based on the abundance of their various elements.

“You can use heavy metals the same way we use carbon to date dinosaur remains,” Vitale says. “Because all these phenomena have different intrinsic rates and yields of heavy elements, that will affect how you attach a time stamp to a galaxy. So, this kind of study can improve those analyses.”

This research was funded, in part, by NASA, the National Science Foundation, and the LIGO Laboratory.

We would love to thank the author of this article for this outstanding web content

Neutron star collisions are ‘goldmine’ of heavy components, study finds

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